Carbonate Mineral Saturation State as the Recruitment Cue for Settling Bivalves in Marine Muds

  • Posted on: Wed, 03/30/2016 - 15:25
  • By: petert

After a pelagic larval phase, infaunal bivalves undergo metamorphosis and transition to the underlying sediments to begin the benthic stage of their life history, where they explore and then either accept or reject sediments. Although the settlement cues used by juvenile infaunal bivalves are poorly understood, here we provide evidence ...

Detecting regional anthropogenic trends in ocean acidification against natural variability

  • Posted on: Wed, 03/30/2016 - 15:18
  • By: petert

Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution humans have released ~500 billion metric tons of carbon to the atmosphere through fossil-fuel burning, cement production and land-use changes. About 30% has been taken up by the oceans. The oceanic uptake of carbon dioxide leads to changes in marine carbonate chemistry resulting in a ...

Vulnerability and adaptation of US shellfisheries to ocean acidification

  • Posted on: Wed, 03/30/2016 - 15:16
  • By: petert

Ocean acidification is a global, long-term problem whose ultimate solution requires carbon dioxide reduction at a scope and scale that will take decades to accomplish successfully. Until that is achieved, feasible and locally relevant adaptation and mitigation measures are needed. To help to prioritize societal responses to ocean acidification, we ...

Recent changes in the North Atlantic

  • Posted on: Wed, 03/30/2016 - 15:11
  • By: petert

It has long been recognized that the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (MOC) is potentially sensitive to greenhouse–gas and other climate forcing, and that changes in the MOC have the potential to cause abrupt climate change. However, the mechanisms remain poorly understood and our ability to detect these changes remains incomplete. ...

Nutrient pulses, plankton blooms, and seasonal hypoxia in western Long Island Sound

  • Posted on: Wed, 03/30/2016 - 14:28
  • By: petert

Development of seasonal hypoxia was studied weekly in the western narrows of Long Island Sound (WLIS) during the summers of 1992 and 1993 by measuring hydrographic properties, biological oxygen demand (BOD), biomass, production, and mortality of phytoplankton and bacterioplankton in the water column. Dissolved oxygen in bottom waters was low ...

Early Exposure of Bay Scallops (Argopecten irradians) to High CO2 Causes a Decrease in Larval Shell Growth

  • Posted on: Wed, 03/30/2016 - 14:00
  • By: petert

Ocean acidification, characterized by elevated pCO2 and the associated decreases in seawater pH and calcium carbonate saturation state (Ω), has a variable impact on the growth and survival of marine invertebrates. Larval stages are thought to be particularly vulnerable to environmental stressors, and negative impacts of ocean acidification have been seen ...

The marine inorganic carbon system along the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coasts of the United States: Insights from a transregional coastal carbon study

  • Posted on: Wed, 03/30/2016 - 13:57
  • By: petert

Distributions of total alkalinity (TA), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and other parameters relevant to the marine inorganic carbon system were investigated in shelf and adjacent ocean waters during a U.S. Gulf of Mexico and East Coast Carbon cruise in July–August 2007. TA exhibited near-conservative behavior with respect to salinity. Shelf ...

Effects of past, present, and future ocean carbon dioxide concentrations on the growth and survival of larval shellfish

  • Posted on: Wed, 03/30/2016 - 13:54
  • By: petert

The combustion of fossil fuels has enriched levels of CO2 in the world’s oceans and decreased ocean pH. Although the continuation of these processes may alter the growth, survival, and diversity of marine organisms that synthesize CaCO3 shells, the effects of ocean acidification since the dawn of the industrial revolution are not ...

The effects of elevated carbon dioxide concentrations on the metamorphosis, size, and survival of larval hard clams (Mercenaria mercenaria), bay scallops (Argopecten irradians), and Eastern oysters (Crassotrea virginica)

  • Posted on: Wed, 03/30/2016 - 13:50
  • By: petert

We present experiments that examined the metamorphosis, growth, and survivorship of larvae from three species of commercially and ecologically valuable shellfish (Mercenaria mercenaria, Argopecten irradians, and Crassostrea virginica) at the levels of CO2 projected to occur during the 21st century and beyond. Under CO2 concentrations estimated to occur later this century (~66 Pa, 650 ...

Ocean Acidification 2.0: Managing our Changing Coastal Ocean Chemistry

  • Posted on: Wed, 03/30/2016 - 13:47
  • By: petert

Ocean acidification (OA) is rapidly emerging as a significant problem for organisms, ecosystems, and human societies. Globally, addressing OA and its impacts requires international agreements to reduce rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. However, the complex suite of drivers of changing carbonate chemistry in coastal environments also requires regional policy analysis, ...

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