This field study in Papua New Guinea examined the effects of natural carbon dioxide seeps on coral reef ecosystems. At reduced pH, coral diversity was lower, population replenishment and abundance of some corals decreased, and interactions among species changed. Reef development ceased below pH 7.7. Ocean acidification, together with warmer temperatures, will probably lead to severely reduced diversity, structural complexity and resilience of Indo-Pacific coral reefs within this century.
Losers and winners in coral reefs acclimatized to elevated carbon dioxide concentrations
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