Reference Library: Calcification

Chemical and biological impacts of ocean acidification along the west coast of North America

  • Posted on: Fri, 12/16/2016 - 10:17
  • By: jackie

The continental shelf region off the west coast of North America is seasonally exposed to water with a low aragonite saturation state by coastal upwelling of CO2-rich waters. To date, the spatial and temporal distribution of anthropogenic CO2 (Canth) within the CO2-rich waters is largely unknown. Here we adapt the multiple ...

Water quality criteria for an acidifying ocean: Challenges and opportunities for improvement

  • Posted on: Tue, 11/01/2016 - 11:50
  • By: jackie

Acidification has sparked discussion about whether regulatory agencies should place coastal waters on the Clean Water Act 303(d) impaired water bodies list. Here we describe scientific challenges in assessing impairment with existing data, exploring use of both pH and biological criteria. Application of pH criteria is challenging because present coastal ...

Biocalcification in the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) in relation to long-term trends in Chesapeake Bay pH

  • Posted on: Mon, 06/13/2016 - 05:56
  • By: Anonymous

Estuarine waters are more susceptible to acidification because they are subject to multiple acid sources and are less buffered than marine waters. Consequently, estuarine shell-forming species may experience acidification sooner than marine species although, the tolerance of estuarine calcifiers to pH changes is poorly understood. This study analyzed 23 years ...

Size-dependent pH effect on calcification in post-larval hard clam Mercenaria spp.

  • Posted on: Mon, 06/13/2016 - 05:56
  • By: Anonymous

The shell calcification rates of small hard clams in five size classes (0.39, 0.56, 0.78, 0.98, and 2.90 mm shell height) decreased with increasingly severe ocean acidification conditions (pH 8.02, 7.64, and 7.41). Clams in the larger sizes were able to deposit new shell material even under corrosive conditions. However, ...

Oyster shell dissolution rates in estuarine waters: Effects of pH and shell legacy

  • Posted on: Mon, 06/13/2016 - 05:56
  • By: Anonymous

The shells of eastern oysters from the Chesapeake Bay dissolved at faster rates when exposed to increasingly severe ocean acidification conditions. Oysters with fresh shells dissolved at the fastest rate, followed by oysters with weathered shells and those with dredged shells. (Laboratory study)

Marine calcifiers exhibit mixed responses to CO2-induced ocean acidification

  • Posted on: Mon, 06/13/2016 - 05:56
  • By: Anonymous

Eighteen marine species exposed to ocean acidification conditions for 60 days exhibited a wide range of responses. Ten of the 18 species were affected negatively with lower rates of net calcification and, in some cases, net loss of shell. Those species included temperate corals, pencil urchins, hard clams, conchs, serpulid ...

Ocean warming, more than acidification, reduces shell strength in a commercial shellfish species during food limitation

  • Posted on: Mon, 06/13/2016 - 05:56
  • By: Anonymous

After six months exposure, warmer temperatures, but not ocean acidification, significantly reduced the shell strength of blue mussels, which were fed for a limited period of only 4-6 hours per day. The rising temperatures seemed to affect shell strength indirectly, as the mussels apparently re-allocated energy from shell formation to ...

Effects of ocean acidification and elevated temperature on shell plasticity and its energetic basis in an intertidal gastropod.

  • Posted on: Mon, 06/13/2016 - 05:56
  • By: Anonymous

Common periwinkles had lower shell growth rates and less increase in shell thickness when grown in ocean acidification conditions, warmer temperatures, or both. Shells were also less pointed and more rounded. Those changes in shell growth appeared to result from disruption of the periwinkle's metabolism. (Laboratory studied)

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