Under conditions expected in the 21st century, global warming and ocean acidification will cause corals to become increasingly rare on reef systems. This review presents future scenarios for coral reefs that predict increasingly serious consequences for reef-associated fisheries, tourism, coastal protection, and people.
When grown under ocean acidification conditions, a non-calcifying seaweed (Chondrus crispus) grew to cover more area, while a calcifying alga (Corallina officinalis) decreased in the area it covered. (Laboratory experiment)
A coralline alga took up and used carbon and nutrients differently when living under ocean acidification conditions for 12 weeks, and the changes affected its ability to compete with other macroalgae (seaweed). (Laboratory study)
Growth and photosynthetic efficiency of a coralline alga decreased under high CO2 levels. These changes could affect the alga's ability to compete with other macroalgae (seaweeds). (Laboratory study)
Corals collected in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, exhibited a complex set of responses when exposed to ocean acidification conditions, different nutrient levels, and two different temperatures. For example, female corals were more sensitive than males to elevated CO2 levels. Considering gender and spawning may be important when considering how populations of ...
Based on experiments with corals collected in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, this paper presents a conceptual model of how changes in nutrients and ocean acidification may interact to produce the range of effects that have been observed in different coral studies. (Laboratory study)
In green sea urchins from the Baltic Sea, the spines appear to be vulnerable to ocean acidification, which might reduce the urchins' protection against predators. Intestinal epithelia may play a role in mediating acid-base balance in the urchin. (Laboratory study)
Experiments with blue mussels from the Baltic Sea revealed a molecular basis of observed changes in physiology in response to ocean acidification. (Laboratory study)
Weekly growth rate of a cold-water seaweed (Porphyra linearis) averaged 53% in regular air and 28% in CO2-enriched air. (Laboratory study)
Ocean acidification increased the negative effects of cadmium pollution on the immune systems of quahogs and eastern oysters, potentially making them more vulnerable to pathogens and disease. (Laboratory study)