Copepods produced more eggs in warmer temperatures, but the increase was smaller when copepods were simultaneously exposed to warmer temperature and ocean acidification conditions (lower pH). When pH changed between egg production and hatching, fewer eggs hatched. Warmer egg production temperature induced a positive maternal effect and increased the egg ...
The shell calcification rates of small hard clams in five size classes (0.39, 0.56, 0.78, 0.98, and 2.90 mm shell height) decreased with increasingly severe ocean acidification conditions (pH 8.02, 7.64, and 7.41). Clams in the larger sizes were able to deposit new shell material even under corrosive conditions. However, ...
Thermal sensitivity of spider crabs, as indicated by heart rate, rose under increasing levels of ocean acidification conditions. The results suggest a narrowing of the spider crab's thermal window under moderate increases in ocean acidification. (Laboratory study)
Spider crab larvae developed more slowly, grew less, and lower physiological fitness under increasing levels of ocean acidification conditions. (Laboratory study)
Three direct effects of increasing ocean acidification on marine plankton have been recognized: enhanced phytoplankton growth rate, changing elemental composition of primary produced organic matter, and reduced biogenic calcification.
The amount of available phosphorus appeared to regulate how much inorganic carbon was used by a red alga grown at different levels of ocean acidification conditions. Growth reflected a balance between carbon and nutrient metabolism. (Laboratory study)
More than 98% of the carbon of the atmosphere-ocean system is stored in the oceans as dissolved inorganic carbon. This textbook describes equilibrium and nonequilibrium properties and stable isotope fractionation among the elements of the carbonate system.
Four species of copepods differed in their survival, egg production, and egg hatching success when exposed to ocean acidification conditions for 8 days. (Laboratory study)
Eelgrass was able to photosynthesize better under ocean acidification conditions because of increased availability of carbon dioxide. The results suggest that ocean acidification may enhance seagrass survival.
Spider crabs were not able to fully buffer their internal pH when exposed to ocean acidification conditions for 12 days. Behavior of the crabs was not impaired by ocean acidification conditions or acute heat stress when they happened separately, but it was when both occurred at the same time. (Laboratory ...