Long-term effects of nutrient and CO2 enrichment on the temperate coral Astrangia poculata (Ellis and Solander, 1786)

  • Posted on: Mon, 06/13/2016 - 05:56
  • By: Anonymous

Based on experiments with corals collected in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, this paper presents a conceptual model of how changes in nutrients and ocean acidification may interact to produce the range of effects that have been observed in different coral studies. (Laboratory study)

Maintenance of coelomic fluid pH in sea urchins exposed to elevated CO2: The role of body cavity epithelia and stereom dissolution.

  • Posted on: Mon, 06/13/2016 - 05:56
  • By: Anonymous

In green sea urchins from the Baltic Sea, the spines appear to be vulnerable to ocean acidification, which might reduce the urchins' protection against predators. Intestinal epithelia may play a role in mediating acid-base balance in the urchin. (Laboratory study)

Impacts of seawater acidification on mantle gene expression patterns of the Baltic Sea blue mussel: Implications for shell formation and energy metabolism.

  • Posted on: Mon, 06/13/2016 - 05:56
  • By: Anonymous

Experiments with blue mussels from the Baltic Sea revealed a molecular basis of observed changes in physiology in response to ocean acidification. (Laboratory study)

Interactive effects of elevated temperature and CO2 levels on energy metabolism and biomineralization of marine bivalves Crassostrea virginica and Mercenaria mercenaria.

  • Posted on: Mon, 06/13/2016 - 05:56
  • By: Anonymous

When quahogs and eastern oysters were exposed to a combination of warmer temperatures and ocean acidification for 15 weeks, shell hardness decreased in both species. By itself, ocean acidification had a small effect on the physiology and metabolism of both species, but it improved survival in oysters. (Laboratory study)

Coralline algal structure is more sensitive to rate, rather than magnitude, of ocean acidification.

  • Posted on: Mon, 06/13/2016 - 05:56
  • By: Anonymous

When exposed to ocean acidification conditions (pH 7.7) for 80 days, coralline algae survived by increasing their calcification rates. However, those algae for which the pH had been dropped rapidly, rather than slowly and gradually, exhibited weaknesses in their calcite skeletons. (Laboratory study)

Sub-lethal effects of elevated concentration of CO2 on planktonic copepods and sea urchins

  • Posted on: Mon, 06/13/2016 - 05:56
  • By: Anonymous

Under extreme ocean acidification conditions (pH 6.8), the egg production rates of copepods decreased significantly. For two species of sea urchins, fertilization rate of eggs decreased with increasing ocean acidification conditions. Furthermore, the size of urchin larvae decreased and deformities increased. These effects on marine life could lead to changes ...

Acidification and warming affect both a calcifying predator and prey, but not their interaction

  • Posted on: Mon, 06/13/2016 - 05:56
  • By: Anonymous

Muscle length and claw strength of green crabs decreased after the crabs had been in ocean acidification conditions (pH 7.7) for 5 months. Periwinkles tended to have weaker shells in response to acidification. Predation by green crabs on periwinkles did not appear to change under ocean acidification conditions. (Laboratory study) ...

Species-specific responses to calcifying algae to changing seawater carbonate chemistry

  • Posted on: Mon, 06/13/2016 - 05:56
  • By: Anonymous

Two species of phytoplankton (coccolithophores) had higher rates of deformities when pH of seawater in the laboratory was different from present-day ocean pH. Examination of geological samples of coccolithophores did not reveal higher levels of deformities, suggesting that coccolithophores have adapted to changes in ocean pH over geological time. ...

Skeletal alterations and polymorphism in a Mediterranean bryozan at natural CO2 vents.

  • Posted on: Mon, 06/13/2016 - 05:56
  • By: Anonymous

Bryozoan colonies were grown at a site in the Tyrrhenian Sea (Italy) where natural emissions of carbon dioxide associated with volcanic activity lower seawater pH to 7.76, simulating levels of ocean acidification predicted for the end of the 21st century. The colonies showed impaired growth and had fewer defensive polymorphs. ...

Structural and geochemical alterations in the Mg calcite bryozoan Myriapora truncata under elevated seawater pCO2 simulating ocean acidification.

  • Posted on: Mon, 06/13/2016 - 05:56
  • By: Anonymous

This study investigated the possible effects of ocean acidification on the calcareous skeleton of a Mediterranena bryozoan by transplanting live and dead colonies into an area of natural volcanic carbon dioxide vents in the Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy. Colonies remained alive at the below-normal and acidic pH sites during the 45-day ...

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