Reference Library: Mollusks

Elevated level of carbon dioxide affects metabolism and shell formation in oysters Crassostrea virginica

  • Posted on: Mon, 06/13/2016 - 05:56
  • By: Anonymous

Juvenile oysters living in acidified seawater had higher mortality rates and less growth of shell and soft-body tissues. They also had higher metabolic rates, likely because of the higher energy cost of maintaining their body chemistry. The high-CO2 conditions also reduced the hardness and fracture toughness of the shells. (Laboratory ...

Ocean acidification disrupts induced defences in the intertidal gastropod Littorina littorea

  • Posted on: Mon, 06/13/2016 - 05:56
  • By: Anonymous

Normally, common periwinkles produce thicker shells in the presence of crab predators. This study found that they did not do so when living in acidified seawater for 15 days. The snails apparently compensated for their lack of defensive shell-building by moving more to avoid the crabs. In a ...

Larvae of the pteropod Cavolinia inflexa exposed to aragonite undersaturation are viable but shell-less

  • Posted on: Mon, 06/13/2016 - 05:56
  • By: Anonymous

When larvae of Mediterranean pteropods were cultured in pH 7.82 water, they had malformations and less shell growth. At pH 7.51, the larvae did not make shells but survived and showed normal development. In a natural setting, the smaller shells or lack of shells would have both ecological and biogeochemical ...

Environmental salinity modulates the effects of elevated CO2 levels on juvenile hardshell clams, Mercenaria mercenaria

  • Posted on: Mon, 06/13/2016 - 05:56
  • By: Anonymous

For juvenile hard-shell clams, ocean acidification alone or in combination with low salinity reduced the hardness and fracture toughness of their shells. This may reduce protection against predators. Salinity should be taken into account when predicting the effects of ocean acidification on estuarine bivalves. (Laboratory study)

Interactive effects of salinity and elevated CO2 levels on juvenile eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica.

  • Posted on: Mon, 06/13/2016 - 05:56
  • By: Anonymous

When juvenile oysters were exposed to ocean acidification and/or low salinity, they had greater mortality, less energy stored in their tissues, and loss of soft tissue indicating energy deficiency. Ocean acidification and low salinity also reduced the hardness and fracture resistance of their shells. (Laboratory study)

Effects of seawater temperature and pH on the boring rates of the sponge Cliona celata in scallop shells

  • Posted on: Mon, 06/13/2016 - 05:56
  • By: Anonymous

Ocean acidification increased the rate at which sponges bored into scallop shells. At pH 7.8, sponges bored twice the number of papillar holes and removed two times more shell weight than at pH 8.1. Greater erosion caused by the lower pH weakened the scallop shells. A warmer water temperature had ...

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